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Solids – Liquid Separation


Solids – Liquid Separation

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Solids – liquid separation programs are needed for effluent treatment to comply with discharge requirements and prevent the build-up of solids in wastewater systems. There are several methods for industrial effluent treatment, including sedimentation, straining, flotation, and filtration.

Our solids – liquid separation technical support team averages over 25 years of field applications expertise with the following industrial effluent treatment technologies:

Simulation and Testing Capabilites
    • Biological treatment for BOD removal and COD removal
    • Chemical softening to remove calcium and magnesium hardness
    • Dissolved air flotation
    • Membrane filtration
    • Multimedia filtration
    • Paint detackification
    • Physical/chemical treatment of metals and phosphates
    • Oily waste demulsification
    • Separators: centrifuges, cyclones, strainers, cartridge filters, cross-flow sieves, and electro-osmosis
    • Sedimentation and clarification
    • Sludge thickening and dewatering
Discover More | Industrial effluent contains the following constituents that need proper treatment:

Suspended Solids

Contaminants visible to the naked eye, suspended solids can generally be filtered out of the water using common filter paper. Although there is no hard and fast definition, suspended solids tend to be greater than 1 to 2 microns in size. If the water is left to stand without being disturbed, the suspended solids will settle to the bottom of the container over time.

Dissolved Solids

Dissolved solids are not visible to the naked eye and cannot be removed from the water by filtration. The standard definition of dissolved solids is material generally smaller than 0.45 microns in size. There are two types of dissolved solids:

  • “Normally” soluble substances
    These are materials that become more soluble with increasing temperature, such as table salt or sugar. The hotter the water, the more of these materials will dissolve.
  • “Inversely” soluble substances
    Normally referred to as “hardness” ions and generally limited to salts of calcium, magnesium, strontium, and barium in water treatment, these materials become less soluble as temperatures increase, hence their tendency to form scale on the hot surfaces of boiler or heat exchanger tubes. Water treatment would be a simple matter were it not for the inversely soluble hardness salts.

Colloidal Solids

These are solids not quite small enough to be considered dissolved but not quite large enough to be considered suspended. Generally, colloidal materials will appear as a “haze” in the water, and it will not be possible to see distinct particles with the naked eye. Colloidal materials are typically within the size range of ~0.45 to ~2.0 microns. Colloidal solids will not settle out from the water because they are so small they are greatly affected by their ionic surface charges. Thus, a colloidal suspension in water is said to be a “stable” suspension.

“Color” is a type of colloidal suspension. Organic molecules that contribute color to raw surface water are simply macromolecules that fall into the smaller colloidal size range. In water, these macromolecules take on an ionic surface charge that stabilizes them so they cannot settle out.

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