New industrial plants are increasingly being required to use alternatives to fresh water as the source for plant makeup. One such alternative is effluent from publicly owned treatment works (POTW), also known as municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent or often simply called “gray water.” Cooling water treatment, even with fresh water as the source, can be challenging. But gray water, if not properly treated, will introduce elevated concentrations of impurities into cooling water and other process streams that can cause huge problems. This article outlines important fundamentals for cooling water microbiological control and discusses steps that can be taken to prepare gray water for use as makeup.
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